Exercise and eating have a fraught, unsettled relationship with each other. Workouts can blunt or boost appetites. People who start an exercise program often overeat and gain weight — and yet studies and lived experience demonstrate that regular exercise is needed to avoid regaining the weight lost during a successful diet. Intrigued by these contradictory outcomes, researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, along with colleagues from other institutions, ran an experiment on the melanocortin circuit, a brain network in the hypothalamus known to be involved in metabolism. The resulting study, published in December in Molecular Metabolism, suggests that intense exercise might change the workings of certain neurons in ways that could have beneficial effects on appetite and metabolism.
The melanocortin circuit consists mainly of two types of neurons. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) cells relay signals encouraging the body to seek food, while the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons countermand those orders, reducing interest in food. Animals, including humans, that lack healthy POMC neurons usually become morbidly obese. The researchers focused on what exercise would do to these cells in mice, whose melanocortin circuits resemble ours. Healthy adult male mice either ran on small treadmills or, in a control group, were placed on unmoving treadmills. The exercise routine consisted of 60 minutes of fast, intense running, broken into three 20-minute blocks. Afterward, the mice were free to eat or not, as they chose. The researchers then checked neuronal activity in some of their brains by microscopically probing individual cells in living tissue to measure their electrical and biochemical signals. The tests were repeated throughout the study, which ran for as many as 10 days for some mice.
Exercise had a considerable impact on their melanocortin circuitry. The runners’ POMC neurons were much more active than those in the idle mice, even after a single workout, for up to 48 hours. And their NPY neurons were quieter, although their activity rebounded after about six hours. The mice also ate less after exercise than had been their habit before.
These findings could help us understand “why many people report little interest in food in the hours after intense exercise,” says Kevin W. Williams, an assistant professor who specializes in hypothalamic research at UT Southwestern Medical Center and the study’s senior author. The data also suggest that continued training potentially remodels the neuronal circuitry in ways that endure, which might partly explain why exercise so often helps with long-term weight management.
Of course, this study involved just one form of exercise, which was strenuous and prolonged, and it involved mice, which none of us are. The impacts of mild exercise on these same neurons, or the influence of exercise on obese or female animals, remains unknown; they might even produce opposite effects, Williams says. Even so, the data hint that a taxing run has the potential to nudge our brains and for a while reduce our interest in food.B:
六合宝典资料心水论坛【最】【重】【要】【的】【是】，【大】【家】【没】【有】【收】【到】【消】【息】，【也】【不】【知】【道】【是】【设】【呢】【么】【情】【况】。 【所】【以】，【人】【来】【了】，【直】【接】【放】【了】【进】【来】。 【进】【来】【后】，【出】【了】【事】【情】，【沈】【成】【负】【责】【管】，【第】【一】【时】【间】【就】【收】【到】【了】【消】【息】。 【这】【会】【儿】，【正】【忙】【着】【找】【陈】【耀】【文】【来】【做】【决】【定】【呢】。 【许】【阳】【叹】【气】，【人】【都】【进】【来】【了】，【要】【说】【只】【是】【进】【来】【几】【个】，【全】【城】**，【慢】【慢】【找】【出】【来】，【问】【题】【也】【不】【难】。 【因】【为】【大】【家】【都】【知】【道】
【距】【离】【御】【灵】【活】【动】【结】【束】【的】【最】【后】【一】【天】，【有】【了】【之】【前】【一】【天】【的】【经】【验】，【凡】【尘】【会】【同】【吹】【水】【家】【族】【的】【都】【选】【择】【了】【最】【后】【的】【消】【停】。 【这】【游】【戏】【就】【是】【这】【样】，【伤】【敌】【一】【千】【自】【损】【八】【百】。 【平】【时】【随】【随】【便】【便】【玩】【玩】【倒】【还】【好】，【可】【这】【次】【关】【系】【到】【御】【灵】【系】【统】【的】【首】【波】【体】【验】【权】，【自】【然】【是】【不】【能】【掉】【以】【轻】【心】。 【李】【浮】【白】【虽】【然】【人】【去】【出】【差】【了】，【可】【是】【考】【虑】【到】【建】【材】【问】【题】，【也】【提】【早】【留】【下】【资】【金】【喊】【话】【长】【生】
【亚】【丁】【南】【部】，【卡】【托】【比】【亚】【行】【省】 【伊】【萨】【姆】【山】【地】 【远】【处】【可】【以】【看】【见】【城】【堡】【高】【高】【的】【屹】【立】【在】【崇】【山】【峻】【岭】【之】【中】，【面】【朝】【广】【阔】【的】【川】【道】【平】【原】，【刚】【刚】【下】【过】【雨】【的】【平】【原】，【大】【小】【不】【一】【的】【河】【流】【构】【成】【的】【密】【集】【水】【网】，【水】【面】【在】【明】【媚】【阳】【光】【下】【波】【光】【粼】【粼】，【这】【些】【从】【亚】【丁】【湾】【交】【错】【而】【下】【的】【河】【道】【所】【覆】【盖】【的】**【地】【区】，【在】【亚】【丁】【地】【图】【上】，【就】【像】【是】【一】【个】【人】【昂】【起】【的】【头】【颅】【一】【般】 【这】【块】【土】【地】，
【擂】【台】【上】【的】【武】【者】【打】【得】【精】【彩】【纷】【呈】【气】【劲】【横】【飞】，，【擂】【台】【下】【的】【观】【众】【呼】【喊】【之】【声】【震】【耳】【欲】【聋】【气】【氛】【火】【热】【之】【极】，【叫】【身】【在】【其】【中】【的】【人】【恨】【不】【得】【冲】【上】【擂】【台】【成】【为】【对】【战】【的】【武】【者】【之】【一】。 【关】【平】【也】【不】【例】【外】，【而】【且】【他】【的】【见】【识】【不】【是】【同】【学】【能】【比】【得】【上】【的】，【能】【够】【清】【晰】【看】【出】【擂】【台】【上】【对】【战】【两】【位】【武】【者】【的】【实】【力】【和】【手】【段】，【甚】【至】【能】【够】【勉】【强】【看】【出】【其】【中】【的】【不】【妥】【和】【错】【漏】。 “【关】【平】【关】【平】，【你】【说】
“【你】【们】【族】【长】【大】【老】【远】【叫】【我】【们】【过】【来】【就】【是】【让】【我】【送】【信】，【我】【还】【担】【心】【了】【好】【久】，【不】【过】【你】【们】【的】【醒】【酒】【茶】【倒】【是】【真】【的】【不】【错】，【睡】【了】【一】【觉】【神】【清】【气】【爽】，【我】【感】【觉】【都】【快】【突】【破】【了】。” 【晨】【光】【中】，【王】【小】【明】【两】【人】【在】【姜】【无】【棱】【的】【陪】【伴】【下】，【轻】【快】【的】【往】【回】【走】【着】。 “【那】【是】【自】【然】，【我】【们】【神】【农】【寨】【的】【药】【茶】【独】【具】【一】【格】，【醒】【酒】【只】【是】【最】【基】【本】【的】。”【姜】【无】【棱】【面】【色】【有】【点】【僵】【硬】，【这】【种】【事】【以】【他】【的】
【林】【玉】【安】【站】【在】【他】【面】【前】，【转】【过】【头】【来】，【已】【然】【一】【脸】【的】【泪】【水】。 “【齐】【慕】【北】，【你】【为】【什】【么】【要】【来】【的】【那】【么】【迟】！” 【她】【心】【里】【真】【的】【很】【难】【受】，【为】【什】【么】【他】【要】【在】【自】【己】【爱】【上】【余】【嘉】【之】【后】【才】【来】，【为】【什】【么】【要】【在】【她】【已】【经】【是】【三】【个】【孩】【子】【的】【母】【亲】【的】【时】【候】【才】【来】！ 【齐】【慕】【北】【怔】【愣】【在】【那】【儿】，【林】【玉】【安】【看】【着】【他】，【眼】【泪】【籁】【籁】【落】【下】，【如】【同】【清】【晨】【的】【蔷】【薇】，【露】【珠】【从】【娇】【嫩】【的】【花】【瓣】【上】【滚】【落】【而】【下】